The  most common characteristic I find are aggravated myofasciatrigger points (TrPs) in the piriformis muscle.  Piriformis trigger points are often confused for a herniated disc, sciatica, or other back issues, and many sufferers undergo unnecessary and costly tests, injections, and surgeries.

What is the piriformis?

The piriformis muscle is a small external rotator of the hip whose function primarily is to turn the knee and foot outward. It lies deep within the gluteal muscles, originates from the sacral spine, and attaches to the greater trochanter of the femur — the big bony “bump” on the outside top of the thigh.  The sciatic nerve passes beneath through an opening called the sciatic notch.


Hip abduction


In non-weight bearing activities, foot unloaded and hip extended, the piriformis rotates the thigh outward. When the
hip is flexed at 90 degrees it aids in hip abduction.
Hip abduction.

In weight bearing activities, foot loaded, the pirifomis is often needed to control rapid medial rotation of the thigh — for example, as the foot strikes the ground during walking or running, the knee turns inward.

Piriformis TrPs and referral pain pattern

Piriformis Trigger Points (TrPs)


The myofascial pain component includes pain in the low back, groin, buttock, and hip.  A TrP may cause the muscle to compress and irritate the sciatic nerve, causing the pain to travel along the course of the nerve. The pain may radiate down the back of the leg and into the hamstrings, the calf muscles, and possibly the foot. The pain may initially be confused with a hamstring strain. Weakness, stiffness and a general restriction of movement are also quite common. Tingling, numbness, or shooting pains down the leg can also be experienced.  Symptoms tend to be aggravated by prolonged sitting or by intense activity.


Piriformis TrPs are predominantly caused by a shortening or tightening of the piriformis muscle.  Piriformis TrPs are commonly associated with sports that require a lot of running, change of direction, or weight-bearing activity.  Piriformis TrPs can result from acute overload (as when catching oneself from a fall), from repetitive overload (as with the rapid internal rotation of the weight bearing experienced by walkers and runners with poor biomechanics),  or from sustained overload (as when holding the leg bent and turned outward for prolonged periods while driving a car or working at a desk).  Sciatic pain from piriformis TrPs is also a common complaint during pregnancy.

Impingement of sciatic nerve from piriformis TrP

The piriformis muscle is responsible for the symptoms of pain by projecting pain from activation of the TrPs and by nerve entrapment upon the sciatic nerve.  Once TrPs are activated, the piriformis muscle begins to put pressure on the sciatic nerve.  The sciatic nerve runs under (and sometimes through) the piriformis muscle on its way out of the pelvis. The piriformis muscle can squeeze and irritate the sciatic nerve in this area, leading to the symptoms of sciatica.

Treatment and Prevention

The first two steps in treating piriformis TrPs can provide the most significant and immediate relief: deep tissue massage with stretching of the external rotators of the hip.  Deep tissue massage techniques such as myofascial release and trigger point therapy are highly effective at reducing active trigger points. Once the TrP is released, there will be a significant reduction in pain.

Following up the massage with flexibility training will help loosen the muscle and help prevent a return of the TrP.  I have found that it takes between four and ten massage sessions to move out of the acute pain phase from piriformis TrPs.  It may be shorter or longer depending on the cause and severity of the initial injury.

For long-term prevention of piriformis TrPs, self myofascial release and flexibility will be your most invaluable tools.  Below are some pictures of how to relieve piriformis TrPs using a ball (preferably a tennis ball for beginners) and how to stretch the piriformis muscle and other external rotators of the hip.  With each stretch it is important to breathe into the stretch and only stretch to slight discomfort … NOT PAIN.

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Posted on July 14, 2011, in clinical massage therapy, massage, massage therapy, myofascial release, sport massage. Bookmark the permalink. 15 Comments.

  1. You said….. “Below are some pictures of how to relieve piriformis TrPs using a ball (preferably a tennis ball for beginners) and how to stretch the piriformis muscle and other external rotators of the hip…..”

    I’m enjoying reading your posts and find them very informative but I’ve noticed that some of them mention illustrations or pictures which are “below” (see quote above), but in actual fact there is nothing to be seen “below”.. Is this a problem with the way I read your posts?

    Keep up the good work!

  2. That’s wonderful, Ron. Many thanks

  3. The back pain struggle is different for every person. Likewise,
    where you have your computer monitor, the height of your keyboard
    and your arm placement will cause neck and shoulder pain.
    This is an important distinction because it is the underlying diagnosis (vs.

  4. Non impact aerobic exercise also have many benefits, but the focus should be
    on exercises that are safe, if you are unsure always consult a professional back pain adviser.
    Likewise, where you have your computer monitor, the
    height of your keyboard and your arm placement will cause neck and shoulder pain.
    Although not backed by scientific evidence, there have been cases where physical treatments have resulted in faster
    recovery from lower back pain.

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  6. I am so thankful I stumbled upon your article! I have been suffering with pain in my hamstring area for a little over four years, and no one has been able to figure out why. I’ve had MRIs and x-rays and CAT scans, and was scheduled for an EMG but was able to cancel it after I found this article and begin to implement the stretches. This is the first thing that has brought me any relief in all that time. Thank you for sharing this!

  7. Good article. I suffer from exactly this. I use a Trigger Point Therapy ball to do localised massage as well as a roller for larger leg massage. I also do hip stretching per GMB https://gmb.io/hip-mobility/ – which I highly recommend.

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